visit the CPCR blog Cultural Security - Cultural Property Index part of: CulturalSecurity.net
home research models cultural intelligence bios contact

Cultural Property Index   Visit the CPCR blog to comment on Cultural Security.

The Cultural Property Index (CPI) indicates the political power of cultural property. The CPI tracks the participation of nations as states parties to conventions over time. The map below illustrates the CPI across nations for 2010. Graphs below track the Cultural Property Index over time for nations according to different classifications (e.g. major economies, regions of conflict, type of art).

Cultural Property - political clout

Conventions established through The Hague, UNESCO, and UNIDROIT over the past century enable artworks and historic structures as a medium for cultural diplomacy. States parties to the conventions shape the significance of cultural property in foriegn policy and diplomacy. (see maps to the right)

Protection and Repatriation - UNESCO conventions

The Cultural Property Index for each nation derives from acceptance or ratification of the following international conventions on the protection and repatriation of cultural property:

1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

First Protocol (1954) specifies:
- the prevention of exportation of cultural property from occupied territories
- return of exported cultural property at close of hostilities.

Second Protocol (1999):
- reaffirms the intent of the convention
- updates the convention in accordance with the evolved strategic and tactical exploitation of cultural property in armed conflict.

1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property

1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects
- establishes common, minimum legal rules for the restitution and return of cultural property.

Below, a map illustrates the range of the CPI across nations for 2010, and the graphs track the CPI by nation since 1954.

The maps below illustrate the states parties to conventions for cultural property:
• protection during armed conflict - 1954 Hague Convention with First and Second Protocols
• transfer and repatriation - 1970 UNESCO Convention and 1995 UNIDROIT Convention

protection during armed conflict



prevention of illicit transfer and providing means for repatriation



CPI - world

From 1954 to 1999, nations have become states parties (acceptance or ratification of) to international conventions for the protection and repatriation of cultural property.

The map to the right shows the CPI for nations based on the time lapse between establishment of a convention and the year in which a nation became a state party to the convention.
(top)



CPI - emerging economies

Along with the emergence of nations as major economies, cultural property increases in significance in foreign policy and diplomancy.

The graph to the right compares the CPI of China, Russia, Brazil, and India to the CPI of the Uniteds States.
(top)



CPI- regions of conflict

Over the past decade, armed conflict with non-state actors has increased risk to cultural property in nations of West and Central Asia .

The graph to the right compares the CPI of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan to the United States
(top)



CPI - African tribal art

Looting of African nations over the past thirty years and a rising market value for African tribal art have increased the significance of cultural patrimony of the continent.

The graph to the right compares the CPI of Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of Congo to the CPI of the United States.
(top)


Santa Monica, California, USA erik.nemeth@culturalsecurity.org ©2001-2016 Cultural Security