Cultural Intelligence Visit the AWI blog to comment on Cultural Security.
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Cultural Intelligence (video) analyzes the hard and soft power of antiquities, artworks, religious monuments, and historic structures as indicators of the political economy of cultural property.
provide insights into the strategic role of cultural
property in diplomacy and international security.
Cultural Diplomacy - public and private sector
Cultural Intelligence supports Cultural Policy by:
- assessing risk to cultural property in political violence, armed conflict, and looting
- informing cultural exchange of cultural property and foreign policy on cultural heritage
- providing insight into cultural economics and cultural diplomacy.
Strategy and Tactics - risk assessments and countermeasures
Asssessents of risk to cultural property inform countermeasures for threats to cultural security (see figure to the right - red corner triangles). Predictive risk assessments have the potential to:
- interdict trafficking of cultural property and quantify theft and looting of artworks and antiquities
- mitigate the erosion of cultural identity and predict likely targets of political violence.
Cross-disciplinary cooperation in production of the risk assessments develops a thesaurus (upper blue triangle) for communication on matters of cultural security and leads to the creation of an ontology (lower blue region) for linking literature and data across fields of study.
Collection of Cultural Intelligence (green triangle) occurs
through social networks, from open source materials, and as
a product of cross-disciplinary studies.
- Social networks of art curators/collectors and dealers/middle men yield information on trading networks. Analyses of the trading networks aid in interdiction of trafficking in artworks and antiquities.
- Open-source collection of sales from auction catalogues and news/academic publications yield data for statistics on artworks/antiquities markets. Analyses of the market statistics provide quantitative estimates of art crime.
- Cross-disciplinary studies enhance collection from social networks and open-source material while providing insights into erosion of cultural identity and targets of political violence.
Areas of Study
Influence of scholarship:
- As early as World War II, art historians have actively participated in developing the tactical significance of cultural property.
- Since World War II, the disciplines that influence the tactical significance of cultural property have expanded (e.g. archaeology and anthropology), and the disciplines relevant to assessing the tactical role of cultural property include neuroscience and psychology.
- In the Cold War era, legal scholars drew on archaeological publications to discuss the ethics of the movement of cultural patrimony from emerging nations to developed “collecting nations”.
- Research databases specialized for tracking the literature of particular fields enable discovery of literature in disciplines that hold insights into the political value of artworks and antiquities.
- Cross-disciplinary studies yield insights into the strategic value of cultural property as revealed in theories in international relations that explore the role of religious monuments and historic structures in a sense of security.
Systems for cross-disciplinary discovery of literature:
- Systems for automated mining of literature across disciplines can leverage the metadata of discipline-specific research databases to identify concepts related to the symbolic/financial value of cultural property.
- The use of such open-source systems by scholars of cultural property and intelligence analysts will inform the development of a vocabulary to discuss the tactical significance of cultural property and lead to the development of ontology to relate concepts in security studies with concepts in studies of cultural property.
- Discovering literature on studies of cultural property and working with scholars versed in the symbolic meaning cultural property will assist intelligence analysts in generating predictive analyses.
- Predictive analyses identify the risks of looting posed by trafficking in antiquities and primitive art and identify interrelations with security threats in emerging nations.
Cultural Intelligence: The Tactical Value of Cultural Property"
Sales as Cultural Intelligence: Analysis of the Auction Market for
African Tribal Art"
Value of Culture: Quantifying the Risk of Antiquities Looting"
Value of Databases for Discovery of Scholarly Literature"
of Art and Architecture Research Databases"
Cultural intelligence employs collaborative research and discovery
of literature to fully exploit social networks and open source material.
Cross-disciplinary studies identify open-source materials and form
social networks. Collaborative research of anthropologists and criminologists
reveals historical trade routes and illuminates the cultural significance
of antiquities, while archaeologists and neuroscientists provide
insights into the political value of historic structures and emotional
associations that cultures form with religious monuments. In communicating
on the collection and analysis of cultural intelligence, scholars
in the various disciplines develop a language for discussing the
tactical significance of cultural property--a cultural-security
thesaurus (upper blue triangle).
Cross-disciplinary studies 1) enhance countermeasures to trafficking
and looting and 2) enable preemptive strategies to mitigate threats
to cultural identity and to predict threats of political violence.
Analyses of trade routes provide the means to identify dealers and
middlemen who may escape notice in social networks. Literature that
informs the political value of cultural property affects the market
value of artworks and antiquities and, therefore, has relevance
to collecting data for market statistics. In the process of countering
overt threats, cross-disciplinary studies also develop means to
forestall evolving threats. By characterizing the tactical significance
of particular cultural objects, scholars identify relationships
between the objects and physical risks--a cultural-security ontology
(lower blue triangle). The ontology enables analyses that assign
security risks associated with erosion of cultural identity and
the destruction of religious monuments in acts of political violence.